Water pollution effects

Water Pollution Effects

Water Pollution Effects

I think all of us are well aware of it. There are enormous water pollution effects on the human body and aquatic life, Have you ever had cholera/typhoid or dysentery? Whoa. Whoa, whoa… Don’t take it otherwise; I never want that for you. These diseases come from polluted/contaminated water, especially from sewage pollution. Various types of Cancer, Skin & fertility-related diseases are the worst health effects. The effluent contains a variety of chemicals, metals, heavy metals, pesticides & other poisonous & harmful substances. These substances have the potential for serious health hazards.

There are two main sources which cause water pollution:

  • Pesticides

Now, the big question is where they come from in drinkable water? The facts are, only from farmers’ fields. Farmers are using different types of pesticides, herbicides & fungicides to control the pest, unwanted herbs and fungus. These pesticide chemicals leach down to aquifer through the soil and contaminate the groundwater. The surface runs off from agricultural fields are also a cause of surface water contamination by these chemicals.

Types of pesticides & Health Hazard:  

  • Organophosphate:
  • Carbamate
  • Organochlorine
  • Pyrethroid

Most of the pesticide is able to damage our nervous system, digestive system & can cause cancer too, because of organophosphate, carbonate, organochloride & pyrethroid. Chlorides are also in it might cause reproductive & endocrine damage.

  •  Heavy Metals

Heavy metals have a high density or atomic weight, found in the earth’s crust, but due to human activities like industrialization activities, their geochemical and biological balance has changed and they enter into groundwater and other drinking water sources. The major sources of heavy metals in the water are mining, industrial effluents, urban runoff, sewage discharge, insecticides & pesticides.

Water pollution effects on Human Body:

Water pollution effects on human body, once any heavy metal enters the human biological system, they get deposited inside, it is significant to know that our body can’t release them outside. It doesn’t have any immediate effect if the quantity is small, but after a long, it will have a prolonged impact, including brain & nervous system disorder, kidney problems, lung problems, and other organs too. These metals are also known as carcinogens because of their carcinogenic nature. Some heavy metals and their health hazard are assembled below-

Mercury: 

One of the most important metals for us, used in various household, scientific & medical equipment. The most common instrument is thermometer, barometer & a fluorescent light bulb. Mercury enters wastewater from various sources like hospital waste, fertilizers, from industrial solid waste, paints, etc. The majors are neurological disorders like tremors, insomnia, memory loss, headache, and neuromuscular effect.

Lead: 

The lead-acid battery manufacturer, lead smelters & recyclers are major sources of lead pollution. Lead in the environment is distributed mostly by air, but there is some discharge into soil and water. The lead can damage some of the most vital body organs like kidney, reproductive systems, nervous system & to the cardiovascular system. Lead exposure can also cause High blood pressure and a drastic reduction of oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood. “Lead exposure through water is generally low in comparison to air”

Arsenic: 

Major sources are mining and smelting & combustion of fossil fuel in an industrial process. Arsenic is discharged in water through the refining process of metals like copper, zinc, and lead. It also comes from chemical & glass manufacturing industries. Long Exposure of arsenic can cause damage to skin/skin cancer. It also has an adverse effect on the eyes and can damage the liver.

Cadmium: 

It generally comes to water from the mining and plastic industries.  Long Exposure of arsenic can cause cancer, especially lung cancer. It also has an adverse effect on the kidneys.

Water pollution effects on aquatic life:

Water pollution effects on aquatic life are that water pollutants disbalance the ecosystem and water quality of water. A variety of aquatic flora & fauna is found in rivers, pond & lakes. All water bodies have their own ecosystem, the biotic and abiotic both components are essential to forming an aquatic/terrestrial ecosystem. The flora & fauna are the biotic & light, temperature, Dissolved Oxygen, Carbon dioxide including other gases, dissolve minerals, pH & Turbidity of the water are abiotic components. The biotic components/living organisms are connected with each other in a form of produces, consumers & decomposers.

When effluent gets dissolved in any water body or stream it bothers the biotic components. Organic, inorganic pollutants, toxic metals are the main constituents of effluent; these are found in dissolving, suspension & colloidal form. These water pollutants affect the abiotic components like rising in turbidity, disturbance in pH & temperature, etc. We can say this is the primary effect of water pollution on aquatic life, which will have horrible if it continues.

The suspended particles drastically reduce the sunlight penetration into the water body and disturb the photosynthesis which inhibits the plant growth and also dissolves oxygen level. The microbes/aerobic bacteria rapidly consume the dissolved oxygen present in water during the digestion of organic pollutants of effluent. It is also an important factor in the reduction in the oxygen level. Organic pollutants and excess nutrients can cause a rise of algae, which is also a big consumer of dissolved oxygen. Depletion in oxygen level disturbs the respiration & metabolism of the organism accordingly because nobody can survive without oxygen.

Finally, I accomplish that the continual addition of untreated effluent in any water body (River, Lake, Pond, etc.) will destroy their respective ecosystem.

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